The goods in question may include identity cards, contracts, faces, titles and stamps, stamps, stamps, bank checks, handwritten letters, documents produced by the machine (such as copies, fax machines, and publishers), cash, and electronic documents. In some cases, graffiti and digital signals can be investigated; however, the consumer should be aware that it can be difficult to investigate this type of evidence. Documents without distinctive markings could provide valuable proof of publication if they were present among the other documents at the time of writing. And built or burned documents can be useful if they are being rebuilt. In addition, stationery, stamps, envelopes, and trademarks/designs of office equipment in the suspect’ssuspect’s hands may be collected by the researcher. In digital documents, evidence can also be removed from the metadata of electronic signature files, which provide information about the identity of the author and when the document was written.
Gather the known and unknown
When conducting an experiment, the forensic document examiner must have a well-known illustration to be able to compare it with the material in question. This pattern can come from a known source, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine. In the case of handwriting, examples are usually divided into two types: the written request form and the compile type. Examples of documentation requirements issued by researchers to authors. These models are created under carefully controlled conditions, and the authors monitored them. However, samples of writing that are collected are documents that have been completed prior to conducting research on the subject. Good sources of written examples can include canceled checks, letters, diaries, signed receipts, medical records, real estate contracts, tax records, or legally signed documents.
Who does the analysis?
The analysis must be performed by a qualified forensic examiner, preferably a member of an established professional organization such as the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE) or the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE). The requirements for joining these associations vary; Examiners, however, usually have to complete a two-year full-time program under the guidance of a qualified forensic examiner. To keep members in good shape and maintain their current skills, examiners must complete continuing education.
How and where the analysis is performed
Forensic examiners work as private examiners in their own laboratories or for publicly funded laboratories. If the agency does not question document analysis functions, investigators may choose to send evidence to a nearby laboratory or hire private reviewers. The techniques and tools used in forensic investigations use well-established principles of physics and chemistry. Typical units of documents questioned in forensic laboratories are equipped with microscopes, digital imagery, infrared and ultraviolet light sources, video analysis instruments, and special equipment, including electrostatic detection devices (EDDs) and materials to perform analytical chemistry.
Many forensic reviewers use only non-destructive techniques that use light and/or electrostatics to examine evidence or ink differentiation documents. However, some screening techniques, such as liquid chromatography, are considered destructive because it is necessary to remove small ink samples from the documents involved. These types of tests can be sent to a specialized laboratory for analysis.
For the analysis of documents created by typewriters, fax machines, or printers, analysts may rely on various databases created for comparison. In handwriting analysis, researchers compare samples from specific residents. Some organizations, such as the U.S. Secret Service and the German Federal Bureau of Investigation, maintain larger databases. For example, the Forensic Information System (FISH) maintained by the U.S. intelligence service contains handwriting from tens of thousands of authors. View text from imprinted impressions – The use of electrostatic precipitators (ESDAs) such as electrostatic precipitators (ESDAs) can be influenced by documents that can affect perceptions invisible to the naked eye. EDD uses Chargers and Used Toner to visualize an area with interior writing, so it is visible to the naked eye. ESDA uses the principle that the rooted parts of the document are less negative than the surrounding area. This causes the Toner used in EDD to be attracted to these areas, which reflects the effects. Using this method, I found an idea in up to 7 layers of paper under the original text. Studies have shown that the ideas can be successfully seen from documents 60 years ago unless they are improperly handled or stored. Find page changes, deletions, deletions, and replacements – Unseen changes, deletions, and deletions can often be found using photos and other imaging tools that use ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. Using light rays of different wavelengths, image devices such as video spectrum comparators (VCCs) can display text in different colors, or different inks can change or delete text in response to different wavelengths. Bright For example, documents with color-filtered information over time in combination with some infrared filters can be enhanced or darkened in combination with an infrared filter and make them easier to read.
Determination of the individual components of the dyes – A study called liquid chromatography can be performed on a document to identify the chemical composition of the dyes. In this technique, a small cut of the required paper is dissolved and analyzed in a solvent. It is one of the few destructive techniques used by document reviewers. The inks can be compared to the International Ink Library, a database maintained by the United States Secret Service that collects data on more than 9,500 inks produced since the 1920s.
Typewriter and typewritten documents – you can create documents created on a typewriter or printed with transparent ink, laser printers, faxes, and copiers for a specific brand or model or for a specific machine. You can also identify the printing process used to prepare documents. If possible, the examiner should obtain known standards and accessories available on the machine in question and subject it to examination.
Stamps and seals — if you have rubber stamps, embossed stamps, watermarks, or other mechanically printed signs, you can submit them for inspection. If possible, it is best to provide the inspector with any suspicious equipment related to suspicious files that may be relevant to the preparation. This includes writing instruments, paper or other substrates, rubber stamps, sealing devices (such as notarized stamps), printing devices, or other mechanisms.
To illustrate the value of the manufacturer’s brand, consider a case in 1989 when a young woman was kidnapped and murdered. Investigators asked the forensic document examiner to examine the victim’s plastic trash bag. The small marks made in the heat sealing process used to make such bags allowed the researchers to know that the bags were made on the same machine as the other bags found. At their parents’ parents’ house for a few seconds. This was the main evidence that led to the conviction of the girl’s mother for murder. (Source: World of Forensic Medicine, © 2006 Gale Cengage.)
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