Loan accounting analysis to review loan errors

Financial institutions deal with loan proceeds by recording money paid and owed in property accounts and payments to the general ledger. This double accounting system makes the lender’s financial statements more accurate.

How much is the loan receivable?

Default is the amount the debtor has to pay a creditor (usually a bank or credit union). It is listed on the creditor’s books as a “loan receivable”.

How can you book an outstanding loan?

Like most companies, a bank can use a dual-entry system to calculate all of its transactions, including loans. The dual entry system requires a more detailed accounting process, with each entry having one additional entry overlapping with another. For each “debtor”, the corresponding “credit” must be recorded and vice versa. The two totals must be equal. Otherwise, an error will occur. The dual input system provides better accuracy (by faster error detection) and is more effective in preventing fraud or mismanagement. Let us give an example of how accounting transactions for loans are received. Suppose you are a small business owner and want to borrow $ 15,000 to start your own bicycle business. You’ve fulfilled your responsibilities, the bicycle industry in your area is booming, and you think the resulting debt is a small risk. You expect moderate sales in the first year, but your business plan is showing steady growth.

You go to your local bank branch, fill out the loan form, and answer a few questions. The manager will analyze your financial information and approve the loan, and establish a monthly payment schedule based on a reasonable interest rate. You must repay the entire loan within two years. You get out of the bank and deposit the funds directly into your checking account. The bank or creditor must accurately record this transaction so that it can later be recorded and balanced in the books of the bank. The manager records the transaction in the bank’s general ledger as follows:

Debtor account. $ 15,000 is charged under “Loans.” This means that the amount is deducted from the bank’s money to repay the loan amount.

Credit account. The amount is shown in this liability account, indicating the amount to be returned. You, as the head of the bicycle company, have to record that too. Here’s how to treat $ 15,000:

Debtor account. Record the loan payment in the company’s verification account. This increases your cash balance and the amount you can spend on your balance sheet. Therefore, the “debit” account is sometimes called the “cash” account.

Credit account. You now have a responsibility, and you should register here. In the “Loan” section, record the principle of $ 15,000. You should also include related bank charges.

Why do I need to add two accounting steps here? Because I have to pay it back. You make an item that only shows $15,000, but if you don’t take into account that you have to pay it off in the end, your book will look a lot better than it really is. Books are also out of balance.

Loan cost?

Partial. Only interest to be paid after payment of the loan is considered an expense. Paid-in capital is the reduction of a company’s “debt” that management reports as cash outflows in its cash flow statement.


Loan products?

The loan is an asset, but for reporting purposes, this loan is included separately as a liability. Get a bank loan for your bike business. The company has borrowed $ 15,000 and now owes $ 15,000 (bank fees and interest may be added). Let’s say $ 15,000 was spent on buying a machine that makes bicycle pedals. The machine is part of the company’s resources and needs to be looked after. It will actually remain an asset long after you repay the loan, but keep in mind that its value will also decrease each year. This should be reflected in the financial statements each year.


What is the difference between an outstanding loan and a loan?

The difference between debts and loans is that one is a liability for the company, and the other is an asset.


Payment loan

This is a responsible account. A company may be indebted to a bank or other business at any time in its history. This “note” may include credit limits. This figure should be included here.


Loan received

This is a property account. If you are a company that borrows money, the “loan title” will give you the exact amount that you have to pay from the borrower. It does not include the amount paid, only the expected amount to be paid.

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How banks make money

Banks receive deposits from consumers and companies and pay interest on some of the accounts. Banks, on the other hand, receive deposits and invest these funds in bonds or loans to companies and consumers. As banks receive interest on their loans, their profits are due to the difference between the exchange rate they pay for deposits and the exchange rate they earn or receive from borrowers. Banks also earn interest income by investing their money in short-term bonds, such as US Treasury bills.

However, banks also generate revenue from fees they charge for their products and services, including wealth management advice, account fees, overdraft fees, ATM fees, and interest and credit card fees. The main business of a bank is to manage the distribution of deposits paid to consumers and the exchange rates that banks receive on loans. In other words, if the interest rate a bank receives on loan is higher than the interest rate paid on a deposit, the bank will generate income from the interest rate spread. The size of this spread is an important factor in the profit of a bank. We will not go into detail about how interest rates are determined in the market, but several factors, such as the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve and the US Treasury yields, influence the interest rates. Here we look at an example of what the interest rate spread of a large bank looks like.

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