In this article, Mark Songer provides a forensic examiner with an overview of forensic research. Topics covered are the training and qualification of forensic investigators, as well as the various methods used to examine various tasks such as signatures, checks, computers, and tapes, as well as deleted publications.
FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
What is Forensic Document Examination?
Evidence Verification (FDE) is an occasional review in which an expert examines a conflicting record under the law. “Information” can be defined as information that consists of symbols, signs, or symbols designed to convey a word or meaning to an individual. These tests include comparing documents or documents with known standards (for example, certification certificates). The purpose of a data analyst is to examine its features and characteristics to determine whether a document has been created or modified. This sentence is part of the Mark Songer Application for Use in Criminal Research by Ink Publishing, LLC
Forensic data analyst training and certification
There are two internationally recognized organizations that accredit laboratories: the U.S. Agency for International Criminal Investigation, the Organization for Laboratory Assurance, and the ASI-ASQ / FQS National Certification Agency. This commitment ensures that the laboratory performs blood tests to performance standards, and employs experts in scientific research. Credit checks must be carried out by a Certified Public Accountant (FDE) or “Auditor General”. At present, there is no government-approved certification body; however, in the United States, the U.S. Intelligence Research Board (ABFDE) has developed guidelines and issued eligibility certifications. The ABFDE requires physicians to obtain at least a baccalaureate degree and to complete a two-year, full-time, or graduate certification at an accredited clinic or by a qualified examiner. The National Association of Document Examiners (NADE) was also established in 1979 to advance the interests of document auditors. The competition group also includes the American Society of Forensic Documentary Examiners (ABFDE) and the Forensic Science Association (FSS). Even without special college training or a degree in physical education, academic support and continuing education should be provided to adhere to the above board.
Standards of practice
The American Society for Testing and Testing (ASTM) publishes procedures and performance standards used by forensic document examiners. ASTM International is a global leader in the development and provision of voluntary compliance options to promote product quality, promote health and safety, improve market and business access, and build consumer confidence. From the perspective of forensic standards, ASTM describes the four aspects of forensic document research and discloses that the examiner “conducts scientific experiments, illustrations, and document analysis for the following purposes:
Provide certainty or dishonesty, or expose fraud, or publish changes, additions or cancellations,
To identify or eliminate people as text sources,
Identify or remove the authority for typing or other remarks, symbols, or limited evidence, and
Write reports or, if necessary, provide data to help users of audit services understand the auditor’s findings.
The Scientific Working Group on the Study of Legal Documents (SWGFDE) is another organization that develops standards in the field of analysis of legal documents. SWGDOC was started in 1997 and consists of independent inspectors and courts in the United States.
Although there is something to say about judicial investigations, the results of the investigation are not merely opinions. The results of the examination must reflect its nature, and all the facts deemed valid must be evaluated based on the basic rules of the appraisal and their experience. The ACE-V method is a method of processing and evaluating knowledge and comparing data.
ACE-V is an abbreviation for a judicial system similar to a scientific system, used to “separate or remove ideas or things because they come from the same place or the same.” The location of the analysis or the method of collecting information is analyzed for its particularity and importance; C represents the comparison stage, or the stage to determine whether the researcher’s test is valid, effective, or suspicious; and E average evaluation, based on training and evaluation experience to identify the information provided in the analysis and compare ACE-V methods. The final stage of the ACE-V method is a version in which the reviewer of the second expert paper uses the ACE method to recheck the original hypothesis to determine whether it is possible or to extract specific information for comparison.
Review and compare handwriting
Handwriting and signature verification involves comparing the writings on the relevant document with other samples to establish the identity of the potential author. The main basis of handwriting recognition is that no two handwritings are identical, although there are natural differences in each handwriting. Researchers can consider a number of personal factors in personal handwriting features, such as letter structure and quotations, pen movement and position, writing speed, letter and location, and the use of modifiers, punctuation, spelling, and grammar. It should be noted that handwriting recognition or analysis is different from “handwriting analysis” (graphology), which attempts to predict character traits from handwriting analysis. The latter has not shown effective and reliable results, and studies have shown that professional forensic document examiners can more accurately compare handwritten samples to prove authenticity than non-clerical ones.
Handwriting works can be divided into two types: requested writing techniques and compiled writing techniques. The requested writing examples are collected from the author under carefully controlled conditions, but the collected written examples are prepared by the author during the normal daily activities prior to the lesson. It is important for the person reviewing the document to obtain several samples of the human text to compare with any other document in question, as natural changes will always be present in that person’s letter, even in the middle of the document. Individuals also show a slight difference in their signals compared to documents, so forensic estimates show that inspectors receive 20-30 signals, 15-20 bank checks, and demonstrations. 3-4 written illustrations. However, if we are collecting text from collected examples, it is important to collect modern writing or material written at the same time as the document in question. This is especially important for young people and older people with literature that can be evidence of major changes due to growth or separation due to age or illness.
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